It seems to me that your graphics driver is not up-to-date and/or that your graphics card is old. Lines 446 and 447 in vtkShaderProgram.cxx are in a part of the VTK code where it calls the graphics back-end to compile a vertex shader program (the source code you see in the error message) and fails.
I recommend trying your program in hardware known to run modern 3D programs (e.g. ParaView) and see whether it works there.
Still, your OpenGL backend is not compiling the shader code VTK is sending to compile. Have you considered upgrading to VTK 9.2? Its more recent shader code may compile sans issues there. If you still experience shader code failing to compile on that platform, I recommend you to report the issue in here: https://gitlab.kitware.com/vtk/vtk/-/issues
I upgrade VTK version to 9.2 according to your advice. Now, opacity works correctly.
Thanks you for your suggestion.
But I have another problem.
Actually, I am trying to visualize the point cloud using PCL, VTK and Qt.
When I using VTK8.2, opacity did not work not only testing of opacity example but also using QVTKOpenGLWidget for point cloud visualization.Now, I upgrade to VTK9.2 and opacity example of vtk is working correctly but I got the following error when I use QVTKOpenGLNativeWidget to visualize.
ERR| 8BA34010]vtkOpenGLRenderWindow.c:512 ERR| vtkGenericOpenGLRenderWindow (0x55beaecc80): GLEW could not be initialized: Missing GL version